JMS, Vol. 55, No. 5, 2019
GEOMECHANICS
INFLUENCE OF THE BACHATSKY EARTHQUAKE ON METHANE EMISSION IN ROADWAYS IN COAL MINES
M. V. Kurlenya, M. N. Tsupov, and A. V. Savchenko
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
email: lion_ltd@ngs.ru
The geological information on coal reserves within fields of the ChertinskayaYuzhnaya and ChertinskayaKoksovaya mines situated in the vicinity of an earthquake focus is given. Methane emission in roadways of the mines is determined, and the model diagram of methane concentrations before and after the earthquake is obtained. The earthquake load on coal seams is estimated.
Earthquake, seismic energy, methane, coal seam, roadways
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056051
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MICROSTRUCTURE OF COAL BEFORE AND AFTER GASDYNAMIC PHENOMENA
E. V. Ul’yanova, O. N. Malinnikova, B. N. Pashichev, and E. V. Malinnikova
Academician Melnikov Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
email: ekaterinaulyanova@yandex.ru
Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography, Moscow, 107064 Russia
The applicability of calculated information entropy to quantification of coal structure nonuniformity at a microlevel is demonstrated. The calculations used digital images of coal surface from scanning electron microscopy after thousandfold increase. The calculated statistical entropy–complexity values enable comparing structural nonuniformity of coal sampled from outbursts, as well as from outbursthazardous and outburstnonhazardous zones. It is found that coal from outbursthazardous zones contain areas of highly chaotic structure as against the ordered structure of coal from outburstnonhazardous zones. Outburst coal is free from chaotic structures though its structure is less ordered than in coal from outburstnonhazardous zones. The proposed method allows detecting the certainly outburstnonhazardous zones in coal seams using digital images of coal samples.
Coal, gasdynamic phenomena, outbursthazardous and outburstnonhazardous zones, digital images of coal surface, statistical entropy and complexity
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056063
REFERENCES
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STRESS–PERMEABILITY DEPENDENCE IN GEOMATERIALS FROM LABORATORY TESTING OF CYLINDRICAL SPECIMENS WITH CENTRAL HOLE
L. A. Nazarova, L. A. Nazarov, N. A. Golikov, and A. A. Skulkin
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
email: lazanarova@ngs.ru
Trofimuk Institute of Oil&Gas Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk, 630073 Russia
The laboratory setup is designed and manufactured to carry out permeability tests of cylindrical specimens with central hole modeling performance conditions of real producing wells under nonuniform stresses. The series of tests is accomplished with artificial specimens made of mediumgrain sand conditioned by cryogel. The empirical dependence of permeability on effective stress is found; it is approximated by an exponential function with coefficient α = 0.0021 MPa^{1}, which is an order of magnitude higher than α estimated based on compressibility of geomaterials and rocks.
Poroelastic medium, flow, laboratory test, cryogel, disc specimen, permeability, effective stress
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056075
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LABSCALE MODELING OF PORE FLUID FLOW IN SAMPLES OF MANMADE SUBSTANCE FROM TAILINGS PONDS
D. O. Kucher, T. V. Korneeva, and S. B. Bortnikova
Trofimuk Institute of Oil and Gas Geology and Geophysics, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
email: korneevatv@ipgg.sbras.ru
The flow of pore fluid is modeled on a lab scale with samples of manmade substance from tailings ponds. The data obtained in the gravimetric and apparent resistance tests are presented. It is found that capillary forces make the main contribution to flow of solutions from a pollution source. This allowed estimation of nature and velocity of the process. The experimental results show highrate vertical and lateral spreading of solid waste substance from sources of drainage solutions, which has detrimental effect on ecology of the nearby lands and water bodies.
Manmade substance, permeability, porosity, electrotomography method, capillary penetration, permeation velocity
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056087
REFERENCES
1. Nazarova, L.A., Nazarov, L.A., Dzhamanbaev, Ì.D., and Chanybaev, Ì.Ê., Evolution of Thermodynamic Fields at Tailings Dam at Kumtor Mine (Kyrgyz Republic), J. Min. Sci., 2015, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 17–22.
2. Oparin, V.N., Potapov, V.P., and Giniyatullina, Î.L., Integrated Assessment of the Environmental Condition of the HighLoaded Industrial Areas by the Remote Sensing Data, J. Min. Sci., 2014, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1079–1087.
3. Chainikov, V.V., Sistemnaya otsenka tekhnogennykh mestorozhdeniy (Systematic Assessment of Technogenic Deposits), Geolog. Metod. Poisk. Razv. Ots. Mest. Tverd. Polezn. Iskop., 1999.
4. Yurkevich, N.V., Karin, Yu.G., and Kuleshova, Ò.À., Ñomposition of the Dump of Beloklyuchevsky Gold Deposit According to Electromagnetic Scanning and Geochemical Testing Data, in: Problems of Geology and Subsoil Development, Proc. of Academician M. A. Usov 21st Int’l Symposium of Students and Young Scientists, 2017.
5. Olenchenko, V.V., Kucher, D.O., Bortnikova, S.B., Gaskova, O.L., Edelev, A.V., and Gora, M.P., Vertical and Lateral Spreading of Highly Mineralized Acid Drainage Solutions (Ur Dump, Salair): Electrical Resistivity Tomography and Hydrogeochemical Data, J. Russian Geol. and Geoph., 2016, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 617–628.
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INFLUENCE OF STRESS VARIATION IN ROOF ROCKS OF COAL SEAM ON STRATA GAS CONDITIONS IN LONGWALLING
V. A. Trofimov and Yu. A. Filippov
Academician Melnikov Research Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
email: asas_2001@mail.ru
Mining of a horizontal isolated seam in a uniform medium in plane strain conditions is considered. The stress distribution in roof rocks of the coal seam is obtained at different stages of minedout area development. The stresses are governed by the complexvariable function, which allows determining location and configuration of zones of stress relaxation and additional load in rock mass. This information is required for estimation of induced jointing and formation of gas pockets in the coal seam parting. The use of the analytical solution makes it possible to obtain relations for finding stress concentration factors and to present the related parameters as contour lines.
Coal seam, stress–strain behavior, permeation, permeability, relaxation, additional load, complexpotential method
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056099
REFERENCES
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EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF COAL SEAM DIP ON STRESS DISTRIBUTION AND DISPLACEMENT AROUND THE MECHANIZED LONGWALL PANEL
M. Damghani, R. Rahmannejad, and M. Najafi
Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Iran
email: mohammaddamghany@gmail.com
email: sreza99@uk.ac.ir
Yazd University, Safayieh, Yazd, Iran
email: mehdinajafi@yazd.ac.ir
The main purpose of this research is to evaluate the effect of coal seam dip on the front abutment and side abutment stresses distribution around the longwall panels by FLAC3D software. For this purpose numerical modeling of five longwall panels in coal seam with dip angle of 0, 12, 22, 32 and 42 degree have been done. The results of numerical modeling have been shown that in all models, peak value of front abutment stress was found to act at a distance about 1–3 m in front of the panel face and the difference between this stresses in front of the working face is about 9.7 MPa. In this distance, the peak vertical stress is in the order of approximately 4–5 times the insitu stress and then gradually decreases toward the initial ?eld stress. Moreover numerical modeling results have been shown that increasing coal seam dip has no significant effect on the peak value of side abutment stress at the edge of pillar, but the side abutment stress concentration is nearer to the edge of pillar. At coal seam dip of zero and 12 degrees, maximum vertical stress occurs at a distance of 5.4 m from the pillar edge, whereas at the coal seam dip of 42 degrees, this stress occurs within 3 m of the pillar edge. However, increasing the dip of coal seam caused to increase entry roof displacement. The results are in good agreement with ?eld observation.
Numerical modeling, longwall mining, stress distribution, FLAC3D software
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056100
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PROBABILISTICBASED STOPE DESIGN METHODOLOGY FOR COMPLEX ORE BODY WITH ROCK MASS PROPERTY VARIABILITY
M. A. Idris and E. Nordlund
Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, SE971 87 Sweden
email: idris.musa@ltu.se
This paper presents a probabilistic approach for optimizing stope design methodology while taking into consideration the variability in the rock mass properties. For this study, a complex orebody in a Canadian mine was used. Because of the variability in the rock mass properties of the orebody, it was not possible to determine precisely, the values of geotechnical design input parameters and hence the need to utilize a probabilistic approach. Point Estimate Method (PEM), a probabilistic tool, was incorporated into numerical analysis using FLAC3D to study the deformation magnitudes of various stope geometries to determine the optimal stope geometry with a minimum ground control problem. Results obtained for the distribution of the wall deformations and the floor heaves for each option of the stope geometry were compared to select the best geometry to achieve the optimum stability condition. The methodology presented in this study can be helpful in the process of underground mine planning and optimization in complex orebody.
Complex orebody, probabilistic approach, rock mass variability, stope geometry, point estimate method
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056112
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ROCK FAILURE
THE METHOD TO MODEL MICROSEISMIC EVENTS DURING HYDROFRACTURE PROPAGATION
N. G. Shvarev and N. S. Markov
Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, SaintPetersburg, 195251 Russia
email: Shvarev_ng@spbstu.ru
The physicalandmathematical model is presented for generation of microseismic events during hydrofracture propagation. Defects (discontinuities) are described using the ESCmodel. The formulas are given for the jumps of discontinuities, characteristics of seismic and aseismic events, as well as the seismic moment and seismic magnitude. The algorithm is developed to model microseismic events during hydrofracture propagation by the known geometry and physical properties of the medium as the input data. The calculations are performed for the pseudo3D and planar models of hydrofracture propagation. It is shown that a majority of events take place at the front of the growing hydrofracture, which agrees with the observations.
Seismic, microseismic activity, microseismic events, hydraulic fracturing, ESCmodel
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056124
REFERENCES
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18. Grechka, V.Yu. and Heigl, W.M., Microseismic Monitoring, Soc. Exploration Geophysi., 2017.
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21. Markov, N.S. and Linkov, A.M., Correspondence Principle for Simulation Hydraulic Fractures by Using Pseudo 3D Model, Materials Physics and Mechanics, 2018, no. 40, pp. 181–186.
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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF FAILURE CRITERIA IN BUILDING MATERIALS AND ROCKS
V. D. Kurguzov
Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
email: kurguzov@hydro.nsc.ru
The criteria of failure and limiting state, widely used in strength assessment of rocks and building materials, are considered. The twodimensional computer model is presented for deformation of cement lining in a cemented cased hole in rock mass under the action of internal pressure from the casing and external pressure from rock mass. The model has a number of sciencebased and experimentally proved strength criteria for determination of failure behavior and potential damaged zones in cement lining. A series of stress–strain analyses of cement lining is performed with varied geometrical parameters and stresses. The criticality of local and nonlocal failure criteria is analyzed. By comparing equivalent stresses, six failure criteria are selected and recommended for estimation and prediction of load resistance of cement lining.
Strength, failure, hole, casing, cement lining, failure criteria
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056136
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STUDY ON OVERLYING STRATA MOTION RULE OF SHORTWALL MINING FACE OF SHALLOW SEAM WITH SIMULATION EXPERIMENT
Lujun Ding and Yuhong Liu
College of Water Resource and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 China
SiChuan College of Architectural Technology, De Yang, 618000 China
email: mddh966@126.com
Taking Shendong mining area as a research object, the roof strata moving law in the shallow buried deep thin bedrock was studied with 3D simulation experiment. The results showed that the surface displacement and roof pressure decrease little, and the roof does not appear the phenomenon of full thickness cutting. As the advancing distance of the working face increases, the displacement of the surface and roof increases. The old roof breaking is not easy to form a hinge structure, the roof when the pressure of mine pressure appearance is very intense.
Shallow seam, 3D similar physical simulation, overburden strata movement, surface displacement
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056148
REFERENCES
1. Huang, Q.X., The Characteristics of the Shallow Buried Coal Seam and the Definition of the Shallow Buried Coal Seam, J. Rock Mech. and Eng., 2002, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1174–1177.
2. Guang, X. and Ma, Y.D., Shallow Work Face Mine Pressure Simulation on the Law, J. Chinese Mining, 2004, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 69–71.
3. Feng, G.R., Wang, X.X., and Kang, L.X., A Probe into Mining Technique in the Condition of Floor Failure for Coal Seam Above Longwall Goafs, J. Coal Sci. and Eng., 2008, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 19–23.
4. Fan, G.W., Zhang, D.S., and Ma, L.Q., Overburden Movement and Fracture Distribution Induced by Longwall Mining of the Shallow Coal Seam in the Shendong Coal Field, J. China University of Min. and Technol., 2011, vol. 2, pp. 196–201.
5. Xuan, Y.Q., Research on Movement and Evolution Law of Breaking of Overlying Strata in Shallow Coal Seam with a Thin Bedrock, J. Rock and Soil Mech., 2008, vol. 2, pp. 512–516.
6. Gao, Y.R., Liu, C.W., Kang, Y.M., and Huang, C.L., Shallow Buried Thin Bedrock Coal Seam Rapid Advancing Working Face Mine Pressure Appearance Law Research, J. Metal Mine, 2015, vol. 6, pp. 29–33.
7. Soni, A.K. and Singh, A. K. K.K., Shallow Cover over Coal Mining: a Case Study of Subsidence at Kamptee Colliery, India, Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 2007, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 311–318.
8. Liu, H., He, C.G., and Deng, K.Z., Analysis of Forming Mechanism of Collapsing Ground Fissure Caused by Mining, J. Min. and Safety Eng., 2013, vol. 3, pp. 380–384.
9. Shi, X.C., Meng, Z.P., and Yang, S., Simulation of Overburden DeformationFailure During MultiCoal Mining in Daliuta Coal Mine, J. Metal Mine, 2015, vol. 3, pp. 53–57.
10. Liu, C.G., Similar Simulation Study on the Movement Behavior of Overlying Strata in Shallow Seam Mining in Majiliang Coal Mine, J. China Coal Society, 2011, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 7–11.
11. Liu, H., He, C.G., and Deng, K.Z., Analysis of Forming Mechanism of Collapsing Ground Fissure Caused by Mining, J. Min. and Safety Eng., 2013, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 380–384.
12. Ren, Y.F. and Qi, Q.X., Study on Characteristic of Stress Field in Surrounding Rocks of Shallow Coalface under Long Wall Mining, J. China Coal Society, 2011, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1612–1618.
13. Xu, J.L. and Qian, M.G., A Method to Determine the Location of the Key Strata in the Overlying Strata, J. China University of Min. and Tech., 2016, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 463–467.
14. Wu, Q., Wang, L., and Wei, X.Y., Yushenfu Mining Area in Daliuta Coal Mining Ground Subsidence Numerical Simulation Visualization Group, J. Hydro Geological Eng. Geology, 2016, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 37–39.
15. Adhikary, D.P. and Guo, H., Modelling of Longwall MiningInduced Strata Permeability Change, J. Rock Mech. and Rock Eng., 2015, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 345–359.
16. Zhang, G.B., Zhang, W.Q., Wang, C.H., Zhu, G.L., and Li, B., Mining Thick Coal Seams under Thin BedrockDeformation and Failure of Overlying Strata and Alluvium, J. Geotech. and Geol. Eng., 2016, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1553–1563.
17. Aleksandrova, N.I., Pendulum Waves on the Surface of Block Rock Mass under Dynamic Impact, J. Min. Sci., 2017, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 59–64.
18. Ren, Y.F., Ning, Y., and Qi, Q.X., Physical Analogous Simulation on the Characteristcs of Overburden Breakage at Shallow Longwall Coalface, J. China Coal Society, 2013, vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 61–66.
19. Xu, J.L., Chen, J.X., and Jiang, K., Effect of Load Transfer of Unconsolidated Confined Aquifer onCompound Breakage of Key Strata, Chinese J. Rock Mech. and Eng., 2017, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 699–704.
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22. Teng, Y.H. and Wang, J.Z., The Law and Mechanism of Ground Subsidence Induced by Coal Mining Using FullyMechanized Caving Method, J. China Coal Society, 2018, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 264–267.
MINERAL MINING TECHNOLOGY
SELECTING CYCLICALANDCONTINUOUS PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAMS FOR DEEP OPEN PIT MINES
V. L. Yakovlev, V. A. Bersenev, A. V. Glebov, S. S. Kulniyaz, and M. A. Marinin
Institute of Mining, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Yekaterinburg, 620219 Russia
email: glebov@igduran.ru
Zhubanov Aktobe Regional State University, Aktobe, 030000 Republic of Kazakhstan
email: kulnyaz@mail.ru
SaintPetersburg Mining University, SaintPetersburg, 199106 Russia
email: mihmarinin@ya.ru
The application data on different process flow diagrams of the cyclicalandcontinuous method using highangle conveyors are presented. The influence of the conveyor angle and elevation height on performance of crushingandconveying systems is determined. The feasibility study of the cyclicalandcontinuous method with mobile crushingandrehandling units and highangle conveyors in the Kostomuksha open pit mine is carried out. The relative capital and operating costs are evaluated for different conveying angles in an open pit mine 100 and 600 m deep. Different schemes of cutting accumulation levels to replace the mobile crushingandrehandling units in open pit mines are compared, and the performance of the cyclicalandcontinuous technology with highangle conveying system in the Muruntau open pit mine, Navoi Mining and Metallurgical Plant, Uzbekistan is described.
Cyclicalandcontinuous method, deep open pit mines, mobile crushingandrehandling unit, highangle conveyor, accumulation level, primary mining operations
DOI: 10.1134/S106273911905615X
REFERENCES
1. Sanakulov, Ê.S., Umarov, F.Ya., and Shemetov, P.À., Cost Reduction in Deep OpenPit Mines through the Use of a HighAngle Conveyor as Part of InPit Conveyor System, Gorn. Vestn. Uzbek., 2013, no. 1, pp. 8–12.
2. Rakishev, B.R., CyclicalandContinuous Technologies in OpenPit Mines, Vestn. KazNTU, 2012, no. 1, pp. 14–20.
3. Reshetnyak, S.P., PresentDay Tendencies in Designing CyclicalandContinuous Technology in OpenPit Mines, GIAB, 2015, no. S56, pp. 126–133.
4. Ioffe, À.Ì. and Seleznev, À.V., Substantiation of the Rational Scope of Applying InPit Conveyor System in OpenPit Mines, GIAB, 2009, no. 3, pp. 342–353.
5. Karmaev, G.D. and Glebov, À.V., Vybor gornotransportnogo oborudovaniya tsiklichnopotochnoi tekhnologii karyerov (The Choice of Mining Equipment for CyclicalandContinuous Technology in OpenPit Mines), Yekaterinburg: IGD UrO RAN, 2012.
6. Marinin, M.A. and Dolzhikov, V.V., Blasting Preparation for Selective Mining of Complex Structured Ore Deposition, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Sci., 2017, vol. 87, no. 5.
7. Trubetskoy, Ê.N., Zharikov, I.F., and Shenderov, À.I., Improvement of Design of InPit Conveyor Systems, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2015, no. 1, pp. 21–24.
8. Mel’nikov, N.N., Usynin, V.I., and Reshetnyak, S.P., Tsiklichnopotochnaya tekhnologiya s peredvizhnymi drobil’noperegruzochnymi kompleksami dlya glubokikh karyerov (CyclicalandContinuous Technology with Mobile CrushingandRehandling Units for Deep OpenPit Mines), Apatity, 1995.
9. Drebenshted, Ê., Ritter, R., Suprun, V.I., and Agafonov, Yu.G., World Experience in the Operation of CyclicalandContinuous Methods with InPit Crushing, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2015, no. 11, pp. 81–87.
10. Prigunov, À.S., Bro, S.Ì., and Shipunov, S.À., The State and Prospects for Applying CyclicalandContinuous and Continuous Technologies, Marksheid. Vestn., 2014, no. 2, pp. 19–21.
11. Yakovlev, V.L., Karmaev, G.D., Bersenev, V.À., Glebov, À.V., Semenkin, À.V., and Sumina, I.G., Efficiency of CyclicalandContinuous Method in Open Pit Mining, J. Min. Sci., 2016, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 102–109.
12. Galkin, V.I. and Sheshko, Å.Å., Substantiation of Areas for the Effective Use of Special Types of Conveyors in OpenPit Mines, GIAB, 2014, Special issue 1: Proc. of Int. Sci. Symp. Miner’s Week–2014, pp. 400–410.
13. Chetverik, Ì.S., Babiy, Å.V., Ikol, À.À., and Tereshchenko, V.V., Prospects for the Use of HighAngle Conveyors in CyclicalandContinuous Mining Technology in OpenPit Mines of Krivoy Rog Basin, Metallurg. Gornorud. Promyshl., 2010, no. 5 (263), pp. 94–98.
PRODUCTION SCHEDULING WITH HORIZONTAL MIXING SIMULATION IN BLOCK CAVE MINING
F. Khodayari, Y. Pourrahimian, and W. V. Liu
School of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, University of Alberta, T6G1H9, Edmonton, Canada
email: yashar.pourrahimian@ualberta.ca
High production rates and low operating costs highlight block caving as one of the favorable underground mining methods. However, the uncertainties involved in the material flow make it complicated to optimize the production schedule for such operations. In this paper, a stochastic mixedinteger linear optimization model is proposed in order to capture horizontal mixing that occurs among the draw columns within the production scheduling optimization. The goal is to not only consider the material above each drawpoint for extraction from the same drawpoint, as traditional production scheduling does, but also to capture the horizontal movements among the adjacent draw columns. In this approach, different scenarios are generated to simulate the horizontal mixing among adjacent slices within a neighborhood radius. The best height of draw for draw columns is also calculated as part of the optimization. The model is tested for a blockcave mine with 640 drawpoints to feed a processing plant for 15 years. The resulting NPV is 473M$ while the deviations from the targets in all scenarios during the life of the mine are minimized. Using the proposed model will result in more reliable mine plans as it takes the horizontal mixing into account in addition to achieving the production goals. Using different penalties for grade deviations shows that the model is a flexible tool in which the mine planners can achieve their goals based on their priorities.
Block caving, production scheduling, optimization, horizontal mixing, mathematical modeling
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056161
REFERENCES
1. Khodayari, F. and Pourrahimian, Y., Mathematical Programming Applications in BlockCaving Scheduling: A Review of Models and Algorithms, Int. J. Min. and Min. Eng., 2015, vol. 6, pp. 234–257.
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3. Guest, A.R., Van Hout, G.J., and Von Johannides, A., An Application of Linear Programming for Block Cave Draw Control, Mass Min., 2000, Brisbane, Australia, 2000.
4. Rubio, E., Long Term Planning of Block Caving Operations using Mathematical Programming Tools, Master of Applied Science, The University of British Columbia, 2002.
5. Rahal, D., Smith, M., Van Hout, G., and Von Johannides, A., The Use of Mixed Integer Linear Programming for LongTerm Scheduling in Block Caving Mines, Proc. of the 31st Int. Symposium on Application of Computers and Operations Research in the Minerals Industries, Cape Town, South Africa, 2003.
6. Rahal, D., Draw Control in Block Caving Using Mixed Integer Linear Programming, PhD, The University of Queensland, 2008.
7. Rahal, D., Dudley, J., and Hout, G.V., Developing an Optimised Production Forecast at Northparkes E48 Mine Using MILP, Proc. of the 5th Int. Conf. and Exhibition on Mass Min., Lulea, Sweden, 2008.
8. Weintraub, A., Pereira, M., and Schultz, X., A Priori and a Posteriori Aggregation Procedures to Reduce Model Size in Mip Mine Planning Models, Electronic Notes in Discrete Mathematics, 2008, vol. 30, pp. 297–302.
9. Smoljanovic, M., Rubio, E., and Morales, N., Panel Caving Scheduling under Precedence Constraints Considering Mining System, Proc. of the 35th APCOM Symposium, Wollongong, NSW, Australia, 2011.
10. Parkinson, A., Essays on Sequence Optimization in Block Cave Mining and Inventory Policies with Two Delivery Sizes, PhD, The University of British Columbia, 2012.
11. Pourrahimian Y., AskariNasab H., and Tannant D. MixedInteger linear programming formulation for blockcave sequence optimisation, Int. J. Min. and Min. Eng., 2012, Vol. 4, No. 1. — P. 26 – 49.
12. Pourrahimian, Y., AskariNasab, H., and Tannant, D., A MultiStep Approach for BlockCave Production Scheduling Optimization, Int. J. Min. Sci. and Tech., 2013, vol. ??23, pp. 739–750.
13. AlonsoAyuso, A., Carvallo, F., Escudero, L.F., Guignard, M., Pi, J., Puranmalka, R., and Weintraub, A., Medium Range Optimization of Copper Extraction Planning under Uncertainty in Future Copper Prices, European J. Operational Research, 2014, vol. 233, pp. 711–726.
14. Khodayari, F. and Pourrahimian, Y., Determination of the Best Height of Draw in Block Cave Sequence Optimization, Proc. of the 3rd Int. Symposium on Block and Sublevel caving (CAVING 2014), Santiago, Chile, 2014.
15. Nezhadshahmohammad, F., Khodayari, F., and Pourrahimian, Y., Draw Rate Optimization in Block Cave Production Scheduling Using Mathematical Programming, Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Underground Min. Tech. (UMT 2017), Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, 2017.
16. Nezhadshahmohammad, F., Pourrahimian, Y., and Aghababaei, H., Presentation and Application of a MultiIndex Clustering Technique for the Mathematical Programming of BlockCave Production Scheduling, J. Min. Sci. and Tech., 2017.
17. Nezhadshahmohammad, F., Aghababaei, H., and Pourrahimian, Y., Conditional Draw Control System in BlockCave Production Scheduling Using Mathematical Programming, J. Min., Reclamation and Environment, 2017, pp. 1–24.
18. Malaki, S., Khodayari, F., Pourrahimian, Y., and Liu, W.V., An Application of Mathematical Programming and Sequencial Gaussian Simulation for BlockCave Production Scheduling, Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. on Underground Min. Tech. (UMT 2017), Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, 2017.
19. Diering, T., Computational Considerations for Production Scheduling of Block Cave Mines, Mass Min., 2004, Santiago, Chile, 2004.
20. Diering, T., Quadratic Programming Applications to Block Cave Scheduling and Cave Management, Massmin 2012, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, 2012.
21. Khodayari, F. and Pourrahimian, Y., Quadratic Programming Application in BlockCave Mining, Proc. of the 1st Int. Conf. of Underground Min. (UMining 2016), Santiago, Chile, 2016.
22. Castro, R., Gonzalez, F., and Arancibia, E., Development of a Gravity Flow Numerical Model for the Evaluation of Drawpoint Spacing for Block/Panel Caving, J. of the Southern African Institute of Min. and Metallurgy 109, 2009, pp. 393–400.
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MINERAL DRESSING
MECHANICAL ACTIVATION BY MILLING IN TINCONTAINING MINING WASTE TREATMENT
T. S. Yusupov, L. G. Shumskaya, S. A. Kondrat’ev, E. A. Kirillova, and F. Kh. Urakaev
Sobolev Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, 630090 Russia
email: urakaev@igm.nsc.ru
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
email: kondr@misd.ru
The capacities of mechanical activation by planetary ball milling in terms of dissociation of mineral concretions and tin recovery from mining waste are demonstrated. The modes of the shortterm activation treatment in the ball mill for higher quality production are determined. The variants of improvement in tin content of concentrates by including milling in hydrochemical concentration circuit are substantiated.
Mining waste, tin, concentrate, planetary ball mill, concentration
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056173
REFERENCES
1. Malyutin, Yu.S., Manmade Mineral Resources of Nonferrous Metallurgy in Russia and Prospects for Their Use, Marksheid. Nedropol’z., 2001, no. 1, pp. 21–25.
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4. Yusupov, T.S., Kondrat’ev, S.À., Khalimova, S.R. and Novikova, S.À., Mineralogical and Technological Assessment of Tin–Sulfide Mining Waste Dressability J. Min. Sci., 2018, vol. 54, no. 4, pp. 656–662.
5. Avvakumov, Å.G. and Gusev, À.À., Mekhanicheskie metody aktivatsii v pererabotke prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo syrya (Mechanical Activation Methods in Processing Natural Mineral Raw Materials and Mining Waste), Novosibirsk, Geo, 2009.
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9. Pol’kin, S.I. and Laptev, S.F., Obogashchenie olovyannykh rud i rossypei (Concentration of Tin Ores and Placers), Moscow: Nedra, 1974.
10. Chanturia, V.À. and Kozlov, À.P., The Development of Physicochemical Foundations and Innovative Technologies for Deep Processing of Mining Waste, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2014, no. 7, pp. 79–84.
MICROPHASE HETEROGENIZATION OF HIGHIRON BAUXITE AS. A. RESULT OF THERMAL RADIATION
I. N. Razmyslov, O. B. Kotova, V. I. Silaev, V. I. Rostovtsev, D. V. Kiseleva, and S. A. Kondrat’ev
Yushkin Institute of Geology and Mineralogy, Komi Science Center, Ural Branch,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Syktyvkar, 167982 Russia
email: razmyslovi@mail.ru
Chinakal Institute of Mining, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Novosibirsk, 630091 Russia
email: kondr@misd.ru
Zavaritsky Institute of Geology and Geochemistry, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Yekaterinburg, 620016 Russia
email: podarenka@mail.ru
The results of modification of the Middle Timan highiron bauxite by thermal radiation, including the earlier unknown phenomenon of phase heterogenization—formation of intrinsic minerals by originally endocryptically disseminated noble, nonferrous, rare and rareearth microelements—are presented. It is possible to utilize this phenomenon for the purpose of commercial application of lowgrade bauxite, red mud and other difficult ore.
Middle Timan, highiron bauxite, thermal radiationinduced modification, phase heterogenization, mineral processing improvement
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056185
REFERENCES
1. Likhachev, V.V., Rare Metals in BauxiteBearing Weathering Core of Middle Timan, Cand. Tech. Sci. Thesis, Syktyvkar: Komi NTs UrO RAN, 1993.
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3. Klychkarev, D.S., Volkova, N.M., and Komyn, M.F., The Problems Associated with Using Nonconventional RareEarth Minerals, J. Geochem. Exploitation, 2013, vol. 133, pp. 133–138.
4. Borra, C.R., Mermans, J., Blanpain, B., Pountikes, Y.B., and Gerven, T., Selective Recovery of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue by Combination of Sulfation, Roasting and Leaching, J. Min. Engin., 2016, vol. 92, pp. 151–159.
5. Borra, C.R., Pontikes, Y., Binnemans, K., and Gerven, T., Leaching of Rare Earths from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud), J. Min. Engin., 2015, vol. 76, pp. 20–27.
6. Klyuchkarev, D.S., RareEarth Component of Bauxites from the Komi Republic, Geology and Mineral Resources of European North East of Russia: Proc. of the 17th Geological Convention in the Komi Republic, Vol. III, Syktyvkar: Geoprint, 2019.
7. Davris, P., Balomenos, E., Panias, D., and Paspaliaris, I., Selective Leaching of Rare Earth Elements from Bauxite Residue (Red Mud), Hydrometallurgy, 2016, vol. 164, pp. 125–135.
8. Rostovtsev, V.I., Theoretical Foundations and Practice of Using Electrochemical and Radiation (Accelerated Electrons) Effects in Ore Preparation and Mineral Dressing, Vestn. ChitGU, 2010, no. 8, pp. 91–99.
9. Razmyslov, I.N., EnergyDriven Phase Changes of Bauxites, Vestn. IG Komi NTs UrO RAN, 2016, no. 6, pp. 33–34.
10. Kotova, Î.B., Razmyslov, I.N., Rostovtsev, V.I., and Silaev, V.I., Thermal RadiationInduced Modification of HighIron Bauxites during Their Processing, Obogashch. Rud, 2016, no. 4, pp. 16–22.
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12. Vakhrushev, À.V., Lyutoev, V.P., and Silaev, V.I., Crystal Chemical Features of HighIron Minerals in Bauxites of VezhayuVorykvinsky Deposit (Middle Timan), Vestn. IG Komi NTs UrO RAN, 2012, no. 10, pp. 14–18.
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17. Kondrat’ev, S.F., Rostovtsev, V.I., and Baksheeva, I.I., Strength Research of Rock Cores after HighEnergy Electron Beam Irradiation, J. Min. Sci., 2016, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 802–809.
RADIOMETRIC SEPARATION IN GRINDING CIRCUIT OF COPPER–NICKEL ORE PROCESSING
E. A. Burdakova, V. I. Bragin, N. F. Usmanova, A. O. Vashlaev, L. S. Lesnikova, L. E. D’yachenko, and A. I. Fertikov
Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
email: kategroo@yandex.ru
Institute of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Science,
Krasnoyarsk, 660036 Russia
Polar Division, NorNickel, Norilsk, Russia
NorNickel R&D Center, Krasnoyarsk, 660041 Russia
Lumpy ore after semiautogenous milling in copper–nickel ore processing at the Talnakh factory is studied. The lumpy ore is mainly presented by sizes –80+40 and –40+20 mm. The Xray radiometric separation tests of the lumpy ore prove their efficiency in production of concentrate and tailings. The strength characteristics and the Bond work index of the concentrate are determined. The results of flotation of the Xray radiometric concentrate are described.
Impregnated copper–nickel ore, autogenous milling, lumpy ore, Xray radiometric sorting, contrast range, flotation
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056197
REFERENCES
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4. Diaza, E., Voisina, L., Krachta, W., and Montenegro, V., Using Advanced Mineral Characterization Techniques to Estimate Grinding Media Consumption at Laboratory Scale, J. Miner. Eng., 2018, vol. 121, pp. 180–188.
5. Lessard, J., Sweetser, W., Bartram, K., Figueroa, J., and McHugh, L., Bridging the Gap: Understanding the Economic Impact of Ore Sorting on a Mineral Processing Circuit, J. Min. Eng., 2015, vol. 91, pp. 92–99.
6. Veigelt, Yu.P. and Rostovtsev, V.I., Intensifying the Beneficiation of Norilsk Copper–Nickel Ores by Energy Effects, J. Min. Sci., 2000, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 595–598.
7. Chanturia, V.A., Kozlov, À.P., Matveeva, Ò.N., and Lavrinenko, À.À., Innovative Technologies and Extraction of Commercial Component from Unconventional and DifficulttoProcess Minerals and MiningandProcessing Waste, J. Min. Sci., 2012, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 904–913.
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10. Lomonosov, G.G. and Turtygina, N.À., The Influence of Ore Material Composition on Processing Indicators, GIAB, 2010, no. 2, pp. 314–320.
11. Mokrousov, V.À. and Lileev, V.À., Radiometricheskoe obogashchenie neradioaktivnykh rud (Radiometric Concentration of Nonradioactive Ores), Moscow: Nedra, 1979.
REBELLIOUS TIN ORE PROCESSING WITH NEW AGENTS FOR NONFERROUS AND NOBLE METAL RECOVERY
T. N. Matveeva, V. V. Getman, M. V. Ryazantseva, A. Yu. Karkeshkina, and L. B. Lantsova
Academician Melnikov Institute of Comprehensive Exploitation of Mineral Resources,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 111020 Russia
email: tmatveyeva@mail.ru
The occurrence form of sodium dibutyl dithiocarbamate on chalcopyrite is defined by IR spectroscopy. A stable compound of lead dibutyl dithiocarbamate forms on galenite. Fat acids of tall oil are adsorbed at the surface of cassiterite as chemically adsorbed oleate and physically adsorbed calcium dioleate. Sodium oleate adsorption at quartz surface is unfound in the mineral spectra after contact with fat acids, which proves selectivity of this agent relative to cassiterite. Applicability of 1,3,5triazine2,4,6triamine agent to flotation of silverbearing minerals is studied. The output of ultrasonic treatment aimed to remove slime material which deteriorates gravity separation of tin tailings at Solnechny Mining and Processing Plant is described.
Tin ore, cassiterite, silver, flotation, collecting agents, flotation, gravity
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056209
REFERENCES
1. Matveeva, Ò.N., Chanturia, V.À., Gromova, N.Ê., and Lantsova, L.B., Effect of Chemical and Phase Compositions on Absorption and Flotation Properties of TinSulphide Ore Tailings with Dibutyl Dithiocarbamate, J. Min. Sci., 2018, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1014–1023.
2. Bellamy, L., Infrakrasnye spektry slozhnykh molekul (The Infrared Spectra of Complex Molecules), Moscow: Izd. Inostr. Lit., 1963.
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4. Ly, N., Nguyen, T., Zoh, K.D., and Joo, S.W., Interaction between Diethyldithiocarbamate and Cu(II) on Gold in NonCyanide Wastewater, Sensors, 2017, vol. 17, no. 11, pp. 1–12.
5. Matveeva, Ò.N., Chanturia, V.À., Gapchich, A.O., and Getman, V.V., Application of New Composition of Reagents in Flotation of SilverBearing Tin Ore, J. Min. Sci., 2018, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 120–125.
6. Paul, I.E., Rajeshwari, A., Satija, J., Raichur, A.M., Chandrasekaran, N., and Mukherjee, A., Fluorescence Based Study for Melamine Detection using Gold Colloidal Solutions, J. Fluorescence, 2016, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 2225–2235.
7. Matveeva, Ò.N., Chanturia, V.À., Gromova, N.Ê., Getman, V.V, and Karkeshkina, À.Yu., Experimental Substantiation of Cassiterite Surface Modification by Stable MetalAbsorbent Systems as a Result of Selective Interaction with IM50 and ZHKTM Agents, J. Min. Sci., 2019, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 297–303.
8. Plaksin, I.N. and Solnyshkin, V.I., Infrakrasnaya spektroskopiya poverkhnostnykh sloev reagentov na mineralakh (Infrared Spectra of Agent Surface Layers on Minerals), Moscow: Nauka, 1963.
9. Young, C.A. and Miller, J.D., Effect of Temperature on Oleate Adsorption at a Calcite Surface:
An FTNIR/IRS Study and Review, J. Min. Proc., 2000, vol. 58, pp. 331–350.
10. Glembotsky, V.A., Sokolov, Ì.À., Yakubovich, I.À., Baishulakov, À.À., Kirillov, Î.D., and Kolchemanova, À.Å., Ultrazvuk v obogashchenii poleznykh iskopaemykh (Ultrasound in Mineral Dressing), AlmaAta, Nauka, 1972.
11. Angadi, S.I., Sreenivas, H., Jeon, H., Baek, S., and Mishra, B. K. A Review of Cassiterite Beneficiation Fundamentals and Plant Practices, J. Miner. Eng., 2015, vol. 70, pp. 178–200.
12. Lopez, F.A., GarciaDiaz, I., Rodriguez Largo, O., Polonio, F.G., and Llorens, T., Recovery and Purification of Tin from Tailings from the Penouta SnTaNb Deposit, Minerals, 2018, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 20.
13. Gazaleeva, G.I., Nazarenko, L.N. and Shigaeva, V.N., Development of a Concentration Circuit for Rough Concentrate Containing Fine Slimes of Sn and Cu Minerals, Obogashch. Rud., 2018, no. 6 (378), pp. 20–26.
14. Gazaleeva, G.I., Features of Deep Concentration of Mineral and Technogenic Raw Material Containing Fine Slime, in: Plaksin’s Lectures–2019. Problems and Prospects for Efficient Mineral Processing in the 21st Century, Irkutsk, 2019.
15. Bergbreiter, D.E., Using Soluble Polymers to Recover Catalysts and Ligands, Chem. Rev., 2002, vol. 102, no. 10, pp. 3345–3384.
16. Getman, V.V., Study of Interaction of Termomorphic Polymers Ions of Nonferrous and Noble Metals, Proc. of the 15th AllRussian Annual Conference of Young Scientists and Postgraduates with Participation of Foreign Scientists, Moscow: IMET RAN, 2018.
PROMISING DISSOCIATION TECHNOLOGIES FOR PREPARATION OF MINERALS TO FLOTATION
S. V. Mamonov, V. N. Zakirnichny, A. A. Metelev, T. P. Dresvyankina, S. V. Volkova, V. A. Kuznetsov, and S. V. Ziyatdinov
Uralmekhanobr, Yekaterinburg, 620063 Russia
email: umbr@umbr.ru
UMMC Technical University, Verkhnyaya Pyshma, 624091 Russia
email: zhrv@tuugmk.ru
Svyatogor, Krasnouralsk, 624330 Russia
email: svyatogor@svg.ru
Milling of minerals and middlings is studied in ultrafine bead mills, Vertimill fine milling machines and in hydropercussionandcavitation machines (rotary–pulsating type). Fine and ultrafine milling provides the wanted rate of dissociation of sulphide minerals and host rocks as compared with ball milling, while hydropercussionandcavitation milling improves selectivity of dissociation at equal grain size composition of products from the rotary–pulsating machines and ball mills. Possible improvement of ore quality by fine hydraulic vibratory screening before deep concentration is examined. It is shown that as against hydrocyclones in pretreatment circuits, fine hydraulic vibratory screens reduce circulation of fines with oversize flow, decrease overgrinding and increase mass fraction of optimal sizes for subsequent flotation.
Technology, bead mill, ultrafine milling, Vertimill, flotation, fine hydraulic vibratory screening, mineral dissociation, extraction, slime
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056210
REFERENCES
1. Chanturia, V.A., Chaplygin, N.N., and Vigdergauz, V.Å., ResourceSaving Technologies of Mineral processing and the Environmental Protection, Progressivnye tekhnologii kompleksnoi pererabotki mineralnogo syrya (Advanced Technologies of Integrated Mineral Processing), Moscow: Ruda Metally, 2008.
2. Gazaleeva, G.I., Teoriya, tekhnologiya i tekhnika protsessov izmelcheniya mineralnogo syrya (Theory, Technology and Methods for Grinding Minerals), Yekaterinburg: AMB, 2017.
3. Sedel’nikova, G.V. and Romanchuk, À.I., Effektivnye tekhnologii izvlecheniya zolota iz rud i kontsentratov, in: Progressivnye tekhnologii kompleksnoi pererabotki mineralnogo syrya (Effective Technologies for Gold Extraction from Ores and Concentrates, in: Progressive Technologies for Complex Mineral Processing), Moscow: Ruda Metally, 2008.
4. Barsky, L.A. and Danil’chenko, L.Ì., Obogatimost mineralnykh kompleksov (Concentratability of Mineral Complexes), Moscow: Nedra, 1977.
5. Klassen, V.I., Nedogovorov, D.I., and Deberdeev, I.Kh., Shlamy vo flotatsionnom protsesse (Slime in Flotation), Moscow: Nedra, 1969.
6. Klassen, V.I. and Mokrousov, V.À., Vvedenie v teoriyu flotatsii (Introduction to the Flotation Theory), Moscow: Metallurgizdat, 1953.
7. Mitrofanov, S.I., Selektivnaya flotatsiya (Selective Flotation), Moscow: Metallurgizdat, 1958.
8. Chanturia, V.A. and Shadrunova, I.V., Tekhnologiya obogashcheniya mednykh i mednotsinkovykh rud Urala (Concentration Technology of the Urals Copper and CopperZinc Ores), Moscow: Nauka, 2016.
9. Asnis, N.À., Bortkevich, S.V., Vagramyan, Ò.À., Glinkin, V.À., and Kalinkina, À.À., Study of Pulp Wave Treatment Effect on Flotation Concentration of Copper Sulphide Ores and Their Middlings, Tsvet. Metally, 2011, no. 10, pp. 42–45.
10. Khopunov, E.À., Selektivnoe razrushenie mineralnogo i tekhnogennogo syrys (v obogashchenii i metallurgii), (Selective Failure of Mineral and ManMade Raw Materials (in Concentration and Metallurgy), Yekaterinburg, OOO UIPTS, 2013.
11. Skvortsov, L.S. and Serdyuk, B.P., Prospects for Applying Cavitation Hydrodynamic Reactor to Utilize Mining Waste, Fundamental Research and Applied Developments for Processing and Utilization of ManInduced Waste: Proc. of the Congress of Young Scientists with Int. Participation, Yekaterinburg: UrO RAN.
12. Meshcheryakov, I.V., R&D of Multistage HydropercussionandCavitation Device for Finely Dispersed Grinding of Rebellious Ores, Cand. Tech. Sci. Thesis, 2014.
13. Mamonov, S.V., Mushketov, À.À., and Nechunaev, À.À., Fine Vibratory Screening in Ore PreTreatment for Copper Ore Flotation, Gornyi Zhurnal, 2013, no. 3, pp. 114–120.
14. Tsypin, Å.F., Mamonov, S.V., and Vlasov, I.À., Products of Classification and Fine Screening in Closed Cycle of CopperZinc Ore Grinding, Tsv. Metall., 2016, no. 2, pp. 4–11.
15. Ismagilov, R.I., Kozub, A.V., and Sharkovsky, D.O., CuttingEdge Technological Solution Enabling Competitive Advantages of IronOre Concentrate Produced by Mikhailovsky GOK, Abstract book of the 29th Int. Mineral Proc. Congress, Moscow, 2018.
16. Yusupov, Ò.S., Improvement of Dissociation of Rebellious Minerals, J. Min. Sci., 2016, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 559–564.
17. Urakaev, F.Kh. and Yusupov, T.S., Numerical Evaluation of Kinematic and Dynamic Characteristics of Mineral Treatment in Disintegrator, J. Min. Sci., 2017, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 133–140.
INFLUENCES OF GRINDING ON THE CLASSIFICATION AND ENRICHMENT OF VANADIUM IN STONE COAL
Liuyi Ren, Weineng Zeng, Xiaojie Rong, Qi Wang, and Shanglin Zeng
Scool of Resources and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
email: rly1015@163.com; rly1015@whut.edu.cn
University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4072, Australia
Changsha Research Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Hunan 410012, China
Grinding, as an important preparation step for beneficiation is very necessary to study for the finely disseminated extent, vanadiumbearing stone coal with complex chemical composition. In this paper, grinding medium, time, degree and monomer dissociation degree were investigated in detail. The results show that the efficiency of rod milling is better than that of ball milling, especially the proportion of –0.038 mm size fraction obtained by rod milling is 10.89% higher than ball milling. The grinding degree of 8 min rod mill is –74 μm 73.19%, then the proportion of monomer is 70.68%. MLA measurement shows that roscoelite can not be dissociated by fine grinding. Vanadium concentrate with 0.97% of the grade and 89.88% of recovery was obtained by classification and shaking table technology. Tailing rate is 18.82%. The enrichment of vanadium can be realized by reasonable grinding and classification.
Vanadium, stone coal, grinding, classification, size fraction
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056222
REFERENCES
1. Zhang, Y., Bao, S., Liu, T., Chen, T., and Huang, J., The Technology of Extracting Vanadium from Stone Coal in China: History, Current Status and Future Prospects, Hydrometallurgy, 2011, vol. 109, pp. 116?124.
2. Zhao ,Y., Zhang, Y., Liu, T., Chen, T., Bian, Y., and Bao, S., PreConcentration of Vanadium from Stone Coal by Gravity Separation, J. Min. Proc., 2013, vol. 121, pp. 1?5.
3. He, D., Feng, Q., Zhang, G., Ou, L., and Lu, Y., An EnvironmentallyFriendly Technology of Vanadium Extraction from Stone Coal, J. Min. Eng., 2007, vol. 20, pp. 1184?1186.
4. Cai, Z., Feng, Y., Li, H., Du, Z., and Liu, X., CoRecovery of Manganese from LowGrade Pyrolusite and Vanadium from Stone Coal Using Fluidized Roasting Coupling Technology, Hydrometallurgy, 2013, vol. 131–132, pp. 40?45.
5. Ni, H., Huang, G., Yuan, A.W., Wang, X., and Zhou, X.Y., Comprehensive Utilization Technology for Low Grade Stone Coal Containing Vanadium, Chin. J. Nonferrous Met., 2010, vol. 62, pp. 92?95.
6. Wu, H.L., Zhao, W., Li, M.T., Deng, Z.G., Ge, H.W., and Wei, C., New Craft Study on Enriching Vanadium by Means of Priority Coal Flotation from High Carbon Stone Coal, J. Chin. Rare Earth Soc., 2008, vol. 26, pp. 530?533.
7. Zhao, Y.L., Zhang, Y.M., Bao, S.X., Liu, T., Bian, Y., Liu, X., and Jiang, M.F., Separation Factor of Shaking Table for Vanadium PreConcentration from Stone Coal, Sep. Purif. Technol., 2013, vol. 115, pp. 92?99.
8. Ren, L., Zhang, Y., Bian, Y., Liu, X., and Liu, C., Investigation of Quartz Flotation from Decarburized Vanadium Bearing Coal, J. Phys. Probl. Min. Proc., 2015, vol. 51, pp. 755?767.
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10. Ren, L., Qiu, H., Zhang, Y., Nguyen, A.V., Zhang, M., Wei, P., and Long, Q., Effects of Alkyl Ether amine and Calcium Ions on Fine Quartz Flotation and Its Guidance for Upgrading Vanadium from Stone Coal, Powder Technol., 2018, vol. 338, pp. 180?189.
11. Duan, X.X., Application of Selective Grinding, Yunnan Metallurgy, 1990, no. 3, pp. 21?24.
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13. Wei, X.C., Han, Y.X., Yin, W.Z., Zhai, Y.C., Tian, Y.W., and Chen, B.C., Study on the Necessity and Flexibility of Selective Grinding for Bauxite, J. Metal. Mine, 2001, no. 10, pp. 29?31.
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16. Cordeiro, G.C., Tavares, L.M., and Toledo Filhoc, R.D., Improved Pozzolanic Activity of Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash by Selective Grinding and Classification, Cement and Concrete Research, 2016, vol. 89, pp. 269?275.
17. Wang, L., Sun, W., Liu, R., and Gu, X., Flotation Recovery of Vanadium from LowGrade Stone Coal, Trans. Nonferrous Met. Soc. China, 2014, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 1145?1151.
18. Yusupov, Ò.S., Improvement of Dissociation of Rebellious Minerals, J. Min. Sci., 2016, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 559–564.
19. Urakaev, F.Kh. and Yusupov, T.S., Numeric Evaluation of Kinematic and Dynamic Characteristics of Mineral Treatment in Disintegrator, J. Min. Sci., 2017, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 133–140.
MINING THERMOPHYSICS
SELECTION OF FROZEN BACKFILL MIXTURE COMPOSITION
M. V. Kaimonov and Yu. A. Khokholov
Chersky Institute of Mining of the North, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences,
Yakutsk, 677980 Russia
email: gtf@igds.ysn.ru
Artificial frozen backfill for coal and ore mines in permafrost zone is discussed. Optimal frozen mixtures with the required strength characteristics are determined. It is shown that loadbearing capacity of backfill depends on grain size composition and volumetric content of ice. The mathematical model of layerbylayer backfilling is developed, and the freezing time is found. Varying mixture composition and freezing parameters allows arriving at the required strength of frozen backfill at minimal filling time.
Mine, frozen backfill, permafrost zone, permafrost, rock temperatures, adfreezing, mathematical modeling
DOI: 10.1134/S1062739119056234
REFERENCES
1. Sherstov, V.A., Podzemnaya razrabotka rossypnykh mestorozhdeniy (1965–2001 gg.) (Underground Mining of Placer Deposits in 1965–2001), Yakutsk: IM, 2002.
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4. Kaimonov, Ì.V., Khokholov, Yu.À., Kurilko, À.S., and Neobutov, G.P., Procedure of LayerbyLayer Backfilling in Mine Workings, GIAB, 2003, no. 9, pp. 47–49.
5. Suknev, S.V., Determination of Elastic Properties of Rocks under Varying Temperature, J. Min. Sci., 2016, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 378–387.
6. Levin, L.Yu., Semin, Ì.À., and Parshakov, Î.S., Mathematical Prediction of Frozen Wall Thickness in Shaft Sinking, J. Min. Sci., 2017, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 938–944.
7. Vyalov, S.S., Reologiya merzlykh gruntov (Rheology of Frozen Soils), Moscow: Stroyizdat, 2000.
8. Tsytovich, N.À., Mekhanika gruntov (Soil Mechanics), Moscow: Vysshaya Shkola, 1973.
9. Votyakov, I.N., Fizikomekhanicheskie svoystva merzlykh i ottaivayushchikh gruntov Yakutii (Physical and Mechanical Properties of Frozen and Thawed Soils of Yakutia), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1975.
10. Surikov, V.V., Mekhanika razrusheniya merzlykh gruntov (Failure Mechanics of Frozen Soils), Leningrad: Stroyizdat, 1978.
11. Taibashev, V.N., PhysicoMechanical Properties of Frozen Coarse Rocks, Trudy VNII1, 1973, vol. XXXIII.
12. Rusilo, P.À., Temperature Behavior of Coarse Rocks in Underground Mining of Permafrost Placers, Kolyma, 1987, no. 1, pp. 5–8.
13. Kaimonov, Ì.V. and Kurilko, À.S., Selection of Composition for Optimal Frozen Backfilling Mixtures, GIAB, 2011, no. 10, pp. 127–132.
14. El’chanov, Å.À. and Rozenbaum, Ì.À., Influence of Change in Stresses and Starins on Coal Block Temperature Dynamics, Ugol’, 1977, no. 2, pp. 15–16.
15. Makarov, Yu.N., Determination of Stress Fields with Respect to Temperature Distribution in the Vicinity of Stopes and Development Workings, Soviet Mining, 1982, no. 5, pp. 108–112.
16. Volokhov, S.S., Mechanocaloric Effect in Frozen Soils under Uniaxial Compression, Kriosfera Zemli, 2016, no. 1, pp. 30–35.
17. Khokholov, Yu.A. and Solov’ev, D.E., Procedure of Joint Calculation of Temperature and Ventilation Mode in Uninterrupted Mining in Permafrost Zone, J. Min. Sci., 2013, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 126–131.
18. Cao, W., Sheng, Yu, Wu, J., Li, J., Chou, Ya., and Li, J., Simulation Analysis of the Impacts of Underground Mining on Permafrost in an Opencast Coal Mine in the Northern QinghaiTibet Plateau, Environmental Earth Sciences, 2017, vol. 76, no. 20, p. 711.
19. Tikhonov, À.Ì. and Samarsky, À.À., Uravneniya matematicheskoi fiziki (Equations of Mathematical Physics), Moscow: Nauka, 1977.
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21. Pavlov, À.V. and Olovin, B.À., Iskusstvennoe ottaivanie merzlykh porod teplom solnechnoi radiatsii pri razrabotke rossypei (Artificial Thawing of Frozen Rocks by the Heat of Solar Radiation when Placer Mining), Novosibirsk: Nauka, 1974.
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